4312combining volume groups


Most modern Linux distributions are LVM-aware to the point of being able to have their 4312combining volume groups file systems on a logical volume. LVM can be considered as a thin software layer on top of the hard disks and partitions, which creates an abstraction of continuity and ease-of-use for managing hard drive replacement, repartitioning and backup.

The LVM also works in a shared-storage cluster in which disks holding the PVs are shared between multiple host computers, but can require an additional daemon to mediate metadata access via a form of locking. The above described mechanisms only resolve the issues with LVM's access to the storage. The file system selected to be on top of such LVs must either support clustering by itself such as GFS2 or VxFS or it must only be mounted by a single cluster node at any time such as in an active-passive configuration.

LVM VGs must contain a default allocation policy for new volumes created from it. This can later be changed for each LV using the lvconvert -A command, or on the VG itself via vgchange --alloc. To minimize fragmentation, LVM will attempt the strictest policy contiguous 4312combining volume groups and then progress toward the most liberal policy defined for the LVM object until allocation finally succeeds.

In RAID configurations, almost all policies are applied to each leg in isolation. If this was the only option available, expansion of the LV would fail. In this sense, the logic behind cling will only apply to expanding each of the individual legs 4312combining volume groups the array.

Originally, the LVM head used to be written in the first and last megabyte of each PV for redundancy in case of a partial hardware failure ; however, this was later changed to only the first megabyte. This simplifies data recovery if a PV is lost. This minimizes the amount of relatively hard-to-debug kernel code needed to implement the LVM.

Any LVM-specific code is pushed out into its user-space tools, which merely manipulate these mappings and reconstruct their state from on-disk metadata upon each invocation. These device mapper operations take place transparently, without applications or file systems being aware that their underlying storage is moving.

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